Otte et al. Not surprisingly, much of the growth in both poultry and hogs in developing countries over the last decade has been as the result of efficiencies gained from increased scale of production and vertical integration, the benefits of which have not spread much beyond a relatively few number of enterprises in those countries.
Small-scale operators are also responsible for most aquaculture production in both Asia and Africa, primarily from inland pond culture. More efficient and productive systems need to be established in those countries to meet the needs of protein and other essential nutrients. In an evolution toward the goal of efficient intensification, the value of indigenous management strategies must be respected and maintained when deemed highly effective.
Improvement of these systems will contribute to the reduction in poverty and food nutrition security. There is a lack of any noteworthy effort to create development projects devoted to and designed for small-scale aquaculture operators. Such efforts can only come to fruition through the encouragement and support of governments Box A possible design for study is a satellite production model whereby a corporate entity provides guidance and information to farmers and purchases outputs from those farmers.
In many of these developing countries, rural poultry accounts for about 80 percent of poultry stocks Akinola and Essien, ; Ngeno, Village poultry can also be a source of income for poor families, particularly for women FAO, a , since village chickens are usually managed by women and children. Although the meat and egg output of village chickens is lower than that of intensively raised chickens, inputs are also low.
Research that will improve outputs in these systems, or that fosters transitions to more efficient semi-intensive or small-scale intensive systems FAO, a , is important for improving food security in these countries. Research attention also needs to be directed toward adequate flock management under local conditions Ianotti et al. Ianotti et al. The FAO a emphasizes that technological innovations developed to foster improvements in family poultry production will be most successful if accompanied by hands-on training and capacity building via formation of producer groups.
Policies around the world that affect livestock sectors can be classified into three groups: 1 price policies, 2 institutional policies, and 3 technical change policies Upton, Price policies include trade policies such as import tariffs and export subsidies, exchange-rate policies and domestic price policies such as price supports and consumption subsidies. Although price policies benefit certain groups within countries, such as livestock producers or low-income consumers, they generally have a negative impact on net national welfare.
Consequently, since the late s, trading countries have engaged in multiple rounds of negotiations to eliminate price policies and their distortive effects on the world economy.
Upton argues that even though price policies have generally failed to achieve positive gains, there is an argument for limited price policies in certain cases such as subsidies for disaster relief and for promoting the use of new inputs such as vaccines or drugs. Nevertheless, price policies distort the incentive structure in markets and can lead to inefficient outcomes. For example, in the former Soviet republics, the subsidization of livestock production led to a dependence on imported livestock feed and little incentive.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the loss of subsidies to support livestock production, feed imports ceased, consumer demand for meat declined, and the livestock sector largely collapsed. Consumers turned to imports of meat and milk from Europe and the United States. Institutional policies are generally considered to be critical for economic development Upton, Such policies include those intended to enhance physical and institutional infrastructure. Institutional policies also include the provision of production credit, animal health services, and genetic materials.
Policies to promote technological change include support for research and development, the dissemination of information, and the extension of production training to producers.
Animal Agriculture: Research Progress by Karl B. Tolenhoff - ounsahouvere.cf
To enhance growth of the livestock sectors in developing countries, Upton emphasizes the importance not only of research to enhance productivity but also of research on socioeconomic issues related to the institutional constraints faced by producers as well as issues related to livestock processing, marketing, and trade. This will lead to the development of policies of all three types: price, institutional, and technical—to meet the needs of diverse populations worldwide. Many, if not most, smallholder animal producers in developing countries worry more on a day-to-day basis about survival than about increasing productivity and profitability of their animal products.
This condition may be a critical barrier to sustainable intensification of animal agriculture in developing countries. Small-scale operators are responsible for most aquaculture production in both Asia and Africa, for example, primarily from inland pond culture. However, many aquaculture producers in developing countries are still plagued by poverty and food insecurity.
Small-scale poultry production is also important for food security in many developing countries, but is typically low-output due to problems with disease and inadequate husbandry. Technology adoption to improve animal production may be slowed if animal producers do not see an immediate direct benefit in terms of survivability, as well as other factors that are not currently well understood. Additionally, economic constraints may prohibit technological adoption.
Governments impose a wide range of general economic and sector-specific policies to achieve economic and social objectives that critically affect decision making by animal producers. In the animal production sectors of most countries, however, policy measures have focused primarily on technical issues related to.
The development and implementation of these policies, however, have failed to consider the economic and institutional constraints facing animal producers in developing countries, such as poor road networks and related infrastructure, limited information about animal diseases, and poor access to health services and production credit Otte et al. Animal production sector policies and programs often have been designed by technical staff in food animal departments and NGOs or international organizations who have limited appreciation or understanding of the broader set of policies, markets, and institutional constraints that are relevant for farm-level decision making Otte et al.
A policy agenda for promoting equitable and efficient growth of the animal production sectors in developing countries that addresses the specific constraints faced particularly by smallholder animal producers proposed by various authors Dorward et al. Exactly what animal sector policies should be implemented in a given country is not clear. As Otte et al.
There are many ways of achieving an objective and many circumstances that determine what might be the optimum policy or policy mix. Often, government authorities opt to implement those policies that are technically feasible, affordable, and politically acceptable Otte et al. This second-best approach to policy making at least gets something done, but may not ultimately contribute significantly to development of the animal production sector and may even be welfare reducing because of all the other constraints that producers continue to face Rodrik, The Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, adopted almost 40 years ago, remains the principal directive for achieving global sustainable fisheries and aquaculture FAO, b.
Within the code are guidelines for action based on 4 international plans, 2 strategies, and 28 technical guidelines. All of these guidelines are founded on the ecosystem sensitivity approach. Most countries have established policies and legislation that align with the Code. The idea of responsible fisheries is founded in an array of considerations that include biological, technical, economic, social, environmental, and commercial.
For example, in Norway, the Aquaculture Act of was enacted to regulate the development, expansion, and management of aquaculture for inland waters, marine, and land-based aquaculture. The governments of developing countries must develop policy with the same objectives in mind. Over the years, no land-based protein production system has been subjected to such a high level of scrutiny about sustainability as that confronting aquaculture. Being recognized as the fastest growing food production sector in the world, this high degree of oversight is a natural byproduct of its dramatic rise to become a significant contributor to global food security Tidwell and Allan, The valid concern about the effect of aquaculture on natural and societal resources has led to third-party certification systems.
In addition, there is high competition among these systems, with success and perceived value being the basis for generating continued financial support i.
Precision phenotyping for efficient animal agriculture
Nonetheless, these certification systems have served the industry well in marketing to retailers and educating consumers about seafood products from both capture and culture fisheries that heed environmental and socially responsible standards. FAO a has published technical guidelines for certification of aquaculture production that can be used as a foundation for the development of certification programs by third parties. The best certification efforts to realize a positive global impact for sustainable aquaculture production are founded in diverse stakeholder input leading to the adoption of common international standards.
In , the World Wildlife Fund introduced a global-based initiative called. Aquaculture Dialogues which consisted of 2, multistakeholder participants with the goal of establishing environmental and social standards for nine species of farmed seafood. Aquaculture Dialogues was successful in establishing important standards and also identified the existing problems and their detrimental effects.
This substantial effort produced noteworthy results that were provided to the Aquaculture Stewardship Council ASC , which currently uses these established standards to oversee the certification of management practices of salmon farms. The GSI brought together CEOs whose companies represented 70 percent of the global production of salmon and ultimately led to establishment of a salmon farming certification that adhered to the standards established by the ASC.
It is hoped that other species-specific industries will mimic these efforts of establishing certification systems whereby retailers and consumers will have the information to make judicious and socially responsible decisions about the purchase of seafood. The importance of appropriate policy measures for achieving growth and development in the animal production sectors of developing countries was emphasized by a recent FAO a report:.
In the s, an increasing number of development aid experts and analysts came to realize that technology transfer alone was not going to transform development, especially agricultural development, in ways that would necessarily be beneficial to the poor. Policy and institutional change was identified as a pre-requisite to steer agricultural development towards meeting the needs of the poor. By influencing the decisions of producers and consumers, policies and institutions are key drivers of economic growth and development, including in the animal production sector Otte et al.
Although the objectives of animal science research are not necessarily to produce policy outcomes, such research can impact and is impacted by policy decisions. For example, research to develop an animal disease vaccine could lead to significant growth in animal production in rural areas where the disease has been endemic. In areas.
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In addition, overgrazing and other negative environmental and social consequences may result. Over time, however, the negative pressure on rural incomes, survivability, and sustainability could induce a change in policy to enhance the infrastructure and marketing systems in those areas to allow greater access of rural producers to commercial markets.